History mai bahut se experiments hue hai, jinme se ek experiment shorthand ka bhi hua hai, yeh ek bahut hi anokha experiment tha, kaise koi jaldi se language ko short form mai leekh kar apna time save kar sakte hai.


Pitman Biography



Shorthand ki khoj Sir Isaac Pitman, ne ki thi, unki banayi hoyi shorthand poori duniya mai itni mashoor hui ki shayad unhone ne kabhi socha nahi tha, par Pitman apni kamyabi ko dekhne ke liye zinda nahi rahe.


Isaac Pitman, ko kon nahi janta, Aaj apni life mai jo bhi stenographer, Reporter, bana hai ya phir banne jaa raha hai woh sab inki wajah se hi hai.

Isaac Pitman, ne hi Shorthand ko invent kiya tha aur inhone ne kaise shorthand ko banaya , kyu inko shorthand bananae ki zarurat padi, aisi kya wajah thi ki inko ek aisi language ko khojna shuru kiya?

Isse related hi apko inki biography share karne laga hoon, taki apko bhi pata lag sake inki life ke baare mai.

Stenographers bas itna jante honge ki Sir Isaac Pitman ne shorthand ko banaya, par woh yeh nahi jante ki yeh shorthand kaise bani, Shorthand ko banane ka kya maksad tha, Pitman ki life kaise thi....



 Early Life


Sir, Isaac Pitman ka birth 4th January, 1813 Townbridge Wiltshire England, mai hua tha. Inke father ka name Samuel Pitman aur Mother ka name Maria Davis tha.


Samuel Pitman

Father of the Inventor of Shorthand Samuel Pitman


Pitman ke 11 Brother & Sisters they, jinme se Pitman 3rd number par they.

1. Melissa 
2. Jacob
3. Isaac Pitman
4. Abraham
5. Rosella
6. Joseph
7. Jane
8. Benjamin
9.  Mary
10. Henry
11. Frederick


Isaac Pitman ke father  ek business man they woh kapde (handloom) bechne ka kaam karte they, unki apni ek kapde ki factory thi, Pitman ne apne father ke saath takreeban 20 saal kaam kiya.

उनकी माँ, Maria Davis जो ek ईमानदारी से धार्मिक महिला, और एक विलक्षण समान स्वभाव और दयालु स्वभाव थी. 


School Life


School Attended by Pitman at Townbridge, England 


Pitman school bahut kam gaye they, woh mostly self study ghar par hi karte they. Unko study mai bahut interest tha woh books ko read out karte rehte they. 

Woh hamesha apne father aur mother se kuch naa kuch life ke baare mai seekhte rehte they.

Pitman shuru se hi study mai intelligent aur mehnti they. Woh Bas apne kaam ke saath pyar karte they.

Woh Christian Religion mai believe karte they, School mai zyadatar unki ruchi Maths, English and Astronomy mai thi. 



Horoscope

Samuel Pitman ke father ka interest horoscope banane mai bhi tha, woh aksar apne neigbour ya apne relatives ka horoscope bhi banakar dete they. 

Unke father ne apni family ke sabhi members ki horoscope (kundli) banakar rakhi huyi thi.  

Unke Father ne, Isaac Pitman ki kundli banayi thi, par unki banayi kundli galat nikli.

Yeh koi nahi janta tha ki Isaac Pitman bade hokar Shorthand ki khoj karenge. 



Pitman Horoscope



Work and Study



Pitman jab 15 age mai they woh apne father ki factory mai kaam karte aur saath mai apni self study karte they. Father ko yeh soch kar bura laga ki usne kaam ke karan apna school jana band kar diya tha.

Ise dekhte huye unhe phir se school mai bheja geya. Ab Pitman morning school jate they aur school ke baad shaam ko duty karte they.

Woh music and study se pyar karte  they. Unki bahut ruchi thi ki woh roz kuch new seekhe.

Pitman ki handwriting bahut aachi thi, handwriting aache hone ke karan bhi woh daily apni writing mai sudhar karte rehte.


College Life


Jab pitman 18 years huye toh, School life ke baad Pitman ki family, 1831 mai Silver Street, England mai hi move kar gayi. 


Pitman ne college mai bahut hi badiya study ki unhe Astronomy par lecture dene ka shonk tha, Woh mostly english langauge ke upar lecture dete they. 

Unke English and Astronomy Lecture bahut pasand kiye jate they.

College ki study complete karne ke baad 20 years ki age mai unko First Appointment letter mila. 

1833 se lekar 1835 tak Pitman ne British School (Barton on Humber) mai as a Teacher job ki.



Correct English Spelling 




Bible, written in Shorthand by Isaac Pitman



Pitman jab bhi study karte jo bhi words unko galat lagte books mai woh unko ek alag copy mai leekh lete they. Aur agle din wohi words ko school ke teacher ko batate ki in words ke spelling galat hai.

Teacher bhi unki baaton ko dhyan se sunte aur words ko correct karne ke liye school ke principle ko kaha jata.

Apko ek baat yahan bata doon ki English Spelling ki correction mostly Pitman ne hi ki hai. 

Woh English spelling ko lekar bahut hi conscious rehte they, unhone ne ek baar Bible book lekar bhi, bahut saare english ke galat words ko theek kiya tha.

Jis Publisher se unhone book li thi, usko hi woh book words ki correction karke wapis de di thi aur kaha hi isme English words correct nahi hai. 

Publisher yeh dekh kar bahut khush hua aur unhone Pitman ko aur bahut si books Free mai hi de di.

Is tarah Publisher aur Pitman mai dosti pad gayi, aur woh koi na koi books mai se English spelling mistakes correct karne lag gaye.


Agey chalkar 1843 mai Pitman ne Poori Bible hi Shorthand mai leekh daali......



Marriage


5th January 1835 ko Pitman ne Mrs Mary Holgate, se marriage karli. Jisse unki shadi huyi thi woh ek bahut hi rich family se belong karti thi. Pitman ke 2 sons they

1. Mr. Alfred Pitman
2. Mr. Ernest Pitman



New Job in Barton




Wotton School in  England


Pitman ne January 1836, ko new job shuru ki as a teacher in  Wotton school, England mai.


Wotton School mai aakar unki life change ho chuki thi, Lecturar se unki promotion hu chuki thi, aur woh ab English subject ke baare mai aur ruchi lene lag gaye they.

Woh sochte rehte they ki kaise english mai aur improvement ho sakti hai, kaise mai jaldi jaldi apne notes leekh sakte hoon. 

Kaise mai fast se fast English language ko read kar sakta hoon. 

Isi doraan unki mulakat Samuel Bagster, se hui, Pitman inke saath language ko lekar baatien karte they, aur knowledge lete they ki kaise language ko fast leekh sakte hai. 

Pitman ne pehli baar Samuel Bagster, ke saath Drink ki , aur uske baad phir woh Vegetarian ban gaye. 



Invention of Shorthand 



Isaac Pitman School in Wotton Edge



1837 mai Isaac Pitman ne apna ek new private school open kiya,  Jahan par pitman khud teacher they aur students ko english language ke baare mai lecture dete they.

School time ke baad woh apna mostly time Shorthand invent karne mai lagate they, Unhone English ke sabhi character A to Z tak, character ke design ki khoj ki.

Ki kaise characters ko ek short shape de kar English language ko leekh sakta hoon. Pitman pehle pehle bas apne liye hi shorthand invent karna chahte they.

Unhone har character ki outline khoj nikali thi, abhi tak shorthand ko woh apne personally use hi karte they, like letters, sermons, speeches leekhna etc....

Woh takreeban English language ko shorthand mai hi leekhne lag gaye they. Aur har din apne ghar mai rehkar ghanto tak. isme new improvement karte rehty they.



The Birthplace of Shorthand



Taki woh har sound ko ek proper shape de sake. Isse lekar 1833 mai Pitman ne 'Shorthand Letter' book bhi leekhi thi. Jo bahut mashoor hui poore England mai, par unhone apna naam chupa rakha, woh sabke sahmne nhi aana chahte they.

Pitman ne Feb 1835 se lekar April 1837 tak shorthand banane mai 2 saal laga diye aur isme mastery hasil karne lage. Woh takreeban apna sara time shorthand invent karne mai hi laga dete they.

Pitman ke mind mai shorthand ko lekar new new ideas aate rehte they aur woh day by day words ko aur easy karne mai lage rehte they.

Jab school mai summer vacations huye toh, pitman ne apna sara time shorthand invent karne mai hi lagate they.

Unhe yeh bhi nahi pata chalta tha ki kab swer se lekar raat pad gayi hai aur morning jaldi uth kar phir se shorthand mai lag jate they. 


Pitman Written First Shorthand Plates



Character ko leekhne baad, pitman ne vowels sound ke upar work karna shuru kar diya tha.

Pitman aur knowledge gain karna chahte they ki kon c sound kahan fit hogi.


Shorthand Characters ko leekhne ke baad, woh ab kon sa consonant and vowels kahan lagane hai, woh apni zyadatar constructions inko banane mai lage rehte they.


Isaac Pitman Invent Sound Vowels


ee, eh, ah, ; aw, oh, oo ; and i, e, a ; o, u, oo




Pitman ki mehant rang layi aur unhone consonants and vowels ki khoj karli thi ki kon sa vowel kahan fit hona hai, jisse unhone ne baad mai 'Writing by Sound' name diya tha.  

Uske baad Pitman ne English Shorthand Grammalogues ki khoj ki, ki jo english mai baar baar aane wale useful words hai unki ek alag indication di jaye.


Uske baad Isaac Pitman ne Doubling principle and character ke length ke baare mai socha aur shorthand plates ka size 1/6 rakha. Means ki shorthand words ko aap iss length mai hi leekhe. 




Isaac Pitman First Book 'Sound Hand' Published in 1837



One week mai Isaac Pitman ki 3000 books sell ho chuki thi. Par yeh toh abhi shurwat thi, kyunki shorthand ne toh abhi bahut agey jana tha. 





Isaac Pitman First Letter Wrote in Shorthand to his friend.



October 1837, first shorthand book published hone ke baad , phir se shorthand ke upar pitman ne work kiya.


30 June 1839,  ko pitman dubara apne ghar Wiltshire, England wapis aa gaye.


First edition book mai pitman ko jo bhi words ko dekh kar galtiyan mehsoos huyi, unko laga ki inme abhi aur improvement ho sakti hai, woh phir se iske upar work karne mai laga gaye.


Research karte karte unhone ne apne ghar ke paas hi Institure lekar Shorthand Center shuru kar diya aur coaching centre ka naam rakhe    'School for Young Gentlemen'. Yahan par Pitman students ko writing by sound ki knowledge provide karne lag gaye.



The First Shorthand Institute in England



Yahan par students ko shorthand padana shuru kar diya aur saath mai ek aur book bhi leekhi jiska name tha 'Joining Letter Words Together'. Means ki bina pen uthaye words ko ek saath leekhe.

Isse apka time bhi safe hoga aur aap zyada speed se leekh payenge. 


Pitman Free of cost mai shorthand tuition provide karte they students ko. Aur class lagane ke baad apne brothers aur sisters ko bhi iski study karvate they.

Pitman ke ghar mai sabhi ne shorthand ko seekh liya tha. Pitman ki shorthand success ko dekh kar England ke Govt. departments mai bhi iski charcha honi shuru ho gayi.


2nd Edition Book Published in January 1840 


Iske saath hi Pitman ne apni 2nd book 'New and improved system of shorthand' ka  2nd Edition 10 January 1840, mai Publish karvayi, yeh book ab pehle se zyada shaandar thi, isme pehle se zyada shorthand plates ko simple karke explain kiya hua tha.


Isme English language ko shortand language mai bahut hi easy way mai describe karke explain kiya geya tha. 


Pitman ne apne shorthand design ko bahut hi safai se banaya aur yeh book 1st Edition se bahi zyada biki.



3nd Edition Book Published in December 1842



1842 ne Pitman ne aur improvement karke 3rd Book 'Phonography Journal' published karvayi. 

3rd Book publish hone ke baad 1000 students Pitman Institute ke saath jud gaye they.

Aur woh daily students ko shorthand teach karvya karte they. Day by day Schools kai shorthand ko as a subject padana shuru kar diya geya tha. Pitman ki uplabhdi day by day badh rahi thi. 





Isaac Pitman at Age 31




Start Weekly Shorthand Magazines 


4 saal baad shorthand mai kuch aur improvements karke Pitman ne weekly shorthand magazines start kar di. Magazine start hone ke baad Shorthand ki duniya mai ek naya dor shuru ho chuka tha.

Yeh shorthand magazines Manchester and London mai published karvayi gayi. Isi dooran Pitman Manchester and Glasow gaye yahan par unhone shorthand ke baare mai students ko bataya.

Shorthand ko demand ko dekhte huye, books ki demand bhi increase hone lag gaye thi, Pitman ke institute mai steno students ki demand itni badh gayi thi ki unhone shorthand book ka ek aur edition published karvaya.


4th Book Published in February 1843


Jiska name tha 'Manual of Phonography' rakha geya. Yeh book bhi poore England mai bahut chali.

Pitman ke brother Mr. Joseph Pitman shorthand system ko alag alag countries mai batane ke liye tour lagane lage.

Unhone alag alag countries mai jakar shorthand system ke upar lectures and speeches di jise dekhar bahut se students specially England mai aakar shorthand seekhne lag gaye.


Leave School 



1843 mai Pitman ne school ko chor diya aur apna sara time shorthand Book, shorhtand Speeches, Journal mai lagane lag gaye. 

Pitman ke ghar ka naam bhi ' Phonography Institute' pad geya tha. Pitman ki books ki demand day by day badh rahi thi.

Isi time ek 16 years ka students Mr. Reed , Pitman se mila , jo shorthand ko seekhan chahta tha aur shorthand ko aage lekar jana chahta tha. 

Pitman ne Mr. Reed ko shorthand seekhayi aur phir wahin Pitman ke saath shorthand mai research karne lag geya.

Jab MR. Reed 21 years ka ho geya toh unhone Pitman ke saath milkar     'The Phonographic Corresponding Society' banayi, Jisme sabhi shorthand students ek saath lekar chalna tha.

1843 December, tak iske saath 300 shorthand members jud chuke they.



Phonographic Festival


15 March 1844 ko Manchester mai 'Phonographic Festival' hua jisme 2000 logon ne hissa liya and second Festival Nottingham  mai hua. Jisme kam se kam 5000 logon ne hissa liya.

Isi dekhte dekhte aise hi kitne hi shorthand phonographic festival hone shuru hogaye aur shorthand ki demand itni badh gayi gayi ki Pitman ka Institute mai students ke liye jagah naa bachi.

Ise dekhte huye Pitman ke friend Mr. Bright, ki daughter ne shorthand ko seeka aur usne apni book poori shorthand mai leekh daali jo baad mai Ms. Clark ke name se bahut mashoor huyi.



2nd Shorthand Magazine



January 1845 ne Isaac Pitman ne 2nd Shorthand Magazine' Phonographic Correspondent' Published karvaya.

Yeh magazine first time America mai bahut chali aur ise dekhte huye Pearl Andrew ne Pitman ki bahut tareef ki aur specially unhone is technique ko seekhane ke liye America mai aakar students ko shorthand seekhane ke liye kaha.

Pitman ne America mai hi rehkar students ko shorthand ke baare mai bataya aur students ko trained bhi kiya.


Starting Printing Press 



December 1845, mai Pitman ne apna Printing Press shuru kar diya ab woh apne printing press se hi books aur magazines published karne lage they.

1846 mai Pitman ne ' Absolute Completion of 'Phonotypic Alphabet' Magazine published karvaya. 


3 saal baad jab yeh magazine bahut chalne lag gayi toh isme kuch changes karke  republished karvaya geya. 


Retirement



1847 ne Pitman ne School aur Institute se  Riterement le li aur woh apna saara kaam Mr. Reed ko de diya ab woh hi shorthand students ko seekhate they.

Pitman retirement ke baad 'History of Shorthand' book ke upar work karne lag gaye. 




Shorthand Phonetic News





1849 mai Daily Shorthand Newspaper mai shorthand news published hone lag geya, Jiski bahut se logon ne iski tareef ki. Ise dekhkar bahut se log shorthand ki taraf aakarshit huye.


Mr. Reed aur Pitman ne milkar yeh news shuru ki thi. Par baad mai Mr. Reed ki tabiyat kharab hone ke karan woh zyada is taraf dhyan naa de paye aur ise beech mai hi band karna pada. Jisse Shorthand Business ka kafi nuksaan hua.


Mr. Reed jab theek huye toh phir unhone ek new Weekly Magazine published karvayi. 



2nd Shorthand Institute







1851 mai Pitman ne apna pehla Shorthand Institute rent par dekar 2nd Institute shuru kar diya, jo second Phonetic Institute bana.

Jahan par pehle se zyada steno students ne admission liya aur dekhte hi dekhte shorthand aur increase hone lag gayi.



Published Shorthand Dictionary


3 January 1852, ko  first time Pitman ne ' Phonographic Dictionary' published karvayi gayi. 

Iske English ke saare words ko ek dictionary mai provide kiya geya. Yeh Dictionary 4800 pages ki thi. Jo aaj bhi England mai karvayi jati hai.

Isme Pitman ne bahut hi ficiton se work kiya hai ek ek outline ko bahut bakhooki leekha geya hai.

Iske saath hi ' Phonographic Vocabulary of English Language' published karvayi gayi. 

Jahan par Pitman ne apna 2nd Institute open kiya tha wahan par hi 2nd Printing press lagva kar new shorthand magazines chapne lag gayi.


Pitman Wife Died



1857 ko Pitman ki wife ki death ho gayi thi aur ise lekar Pitman bahut time tak dukhi rahe. 

Woh is time shorthand ki taraf zyada concentrate na kar paye, jiski wajah se unke Business ko loss hua.



25 Years of Shorthand



1862 tak shorthand ko poore 25 years ho chuke they. Shorthand ko America, England, Manchester mai bahut maan saaman mila.

Newspapers mai daily shorthand ke baare mai kuch na kuch chapne lag geya tha.

Jise dekhte huye Govt. Departments mai bhi as a Steno  job niklne lag gayi thi. 

Students ise seekhkar Govt. Departments mai job lene lag gaye they, aur apne pairon par khade hone lag gaye they.


1864 mai First Time Shorthand Exam liya geya aur iske pehle examiner Mr. Frederick they. Jinhone yeh test easily pass kar liya.

1864 mai hi First Time spanish language mai shorthand ko published krvaya geya, aur dekhte hi dekhte spain country mai bhi shorthand ki demand badhne lag gayi.


1862-1872 tak Shorthand mai ek bahut bada change aya, shorthand ko lekar bahut si magazines, books, essays and shorthand ki 10th Edition book bhi chappi, 1871 mai Mr. Reed Shorthand ki short book leeekhi.

Shorthand ko lekar bahut se experiments and changes kiye gaye. 1867 mai Pitman ne 'Holy Bible' and 1869 mai 'Common Prayers' Book Leekhi.

Mr. Reed apni zindagi ke end tak shorthand mai changes and improvements karte rahe, jisse kabhi bhi bhulaya nahi jaa sakta.

1861 mai Isaac Pitman ne shorthand ko lekar kaam kam kar diya, kyunki unhe Mr. Reed ke chale jaane ka bahut dukh huya aur unki age bhi zyada hone lagi thi.


Uske bad 1867 mai Pitman phir se Shorthand ko lekar active rahe aur unhone new shorthand Dictionary leekhi jiska name tha 'Phonetic Shorthand Dictionary' da 4th Edition published karvaya geya.


Isaac Pitman & Sons

Isaac Pitman & Sons


1880 tak Pitman ke done bete Mr. Alfred & Mr Ernest Pitman bhi shorthand mai work karne lag gaye. Unhone apne Insitute ka naam change karke ' Isaac Pitman & Sons rakh diya and uske saath hi ek new book leekhi ' Phongraphic Teacher' yeh book ki takreeban 10 lakh copies sell huyi.

Jo Pitman ke liye ek bahut badi baat thi, Unki khushi ka jashan abhi mana hi rahe they ki unke Brother Mr. Frederick Pitman ki death ho gayi.



1888 mai Royal Academy ki taraf se Isaac Pitman ko Shorthand ko invent karne , books, magazines leekhne ke liye Awards se sanmanit kiya geya.


21 May 1894 ko Unhe 'Honour of Knightwood' se sanmanit kiya geya, jo England mai sabse bada award mana jata hai.


Last Days


1892 mai Pitman ne alag alag cities and countries mai jakar shorthand ko lekar lecture diye. 

Pitman ki invent ki huyi Shorthand ab French, German, Japanese, Spanish, Language mai bhi publish ho chuki thi, aur slowly slowly yeh poore world mai mashoor ho gayi thi, par tab tak Isaac Pitman ke age bahut ho chuki thi.

Pitman ne sari life bahut hi simple tareeke se guzari thi, unme mai yeh nahi tha ki maine shorthand ko invent kiya ya aisa koi bhi ghumaan na tha, woh apni life ko bahut hi saadhi aur simple tareeke se guzarte they.

At Last, Lungs ki problem ki wajah se woh kafi bimaar rehne lag gaye they, jiske karna.......


Sir, Isaac Pitman 22 January 1897 ko 7.55 AM Saturday, is duniya ko alvida keh gaye.



Aur isi ke saath , Pitman Biography khatam hoti hai, Apko pata chal geya hoga ki yeh Shorthand kaise bani aur isko banane mai Pitman ne apni poori life laga di.

Par woh apne is kamyabi ko dekhne ke liye zinda nahi rahe, par unki banayi hoyi shorthand aaj bhi poore world mai chal rahi hai, aur students ise seekhar apni life mai rozgar hasil kar rahe hai.

1 Comments

  1. Ok thankyou Sir explain in very well Issac Pitman about in biography because iam not understand in hindi language , please give me explain in English as well as all people understand thankyou so much

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